Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration begins with glucose. Glucose is the primary fuel used in
glycolysis, the first stage of cellular respiration. This molecule is found in
the gel-like substance called cytoplasm that fills the cell. In glycolysis,
glucose undergoes phosphorylation by ATP. The ATP is converted back to ADP. The
glucose molecule is rearranged and undergoes a second phosphorylation by ATP.

The second ATP is also converted back to ADP. Glucose, a six-carbon molecule, is
split into 2 three-carbon molecules of PGAL. As oxidation takes place, NAD picks
up a hydrogen atom from each molecule to form 2NADH. Phosphorylation takes place
again. For each molecule, 2ADP combine with two phosphates to form a total of 4

ATP, and pyruvic acid molecules are formed. A net gain of 2 ATP have been
formed. As the pyruvic acid molecules make their way toward the mitochondria,
two more molecules of NADH are formed. A carbon atom also breaks off and
combines with two oxygen atoms to produce the waste product carbon dioxide. As a
result of these reactions, each pyruvic acid molecule is transformed into a
two-carbon compound called an acetyl group. The two acetyl groups combine with a
molecule of coenzyme A each to form two acetyl coenzyme A molecules. These
molecules are processed in a complex pathway called the Krebs cycle. As the

Krebs cycle progresses through both pyruvic acid molecules, six molecules of

NADH, two molecules of ATP, and additional carbon dioxide are all formed. FAD
picks up a hydrogen atom from each pyruvic acid molecule, and a total of 2 FAD2
are formed. NADH and FAD2 transport their hydrogen atoms and electrons to the
electron transport chain. The electrons are passed down the chain of attracting
molecules until they reach oxygen. Joined with hydrogen, they combine with the
oxygen to form water. As the electrons flow down the electron chain, they
release energy that is used to make more ATP. Eight of the ten NADH form three

ATP each, while the other two form two ATP. Each of the FADH2 form two ATP. The
number of ATP produced here in the electron transport chain is 32. The total
number of ATP is 38, but the use of two ATP in glycolysis gives a net gain of 36