Biotin


     Biotin is important for healthy hair and skin. 100 mg of biotin may prevent hair
loss in some men. Biotin helps to relieve muscle pain. It promotes healthy nerve
tissue, bone marrow and sweat glands. It also relieves seborrheic dermatitis in
infants. Biotin works with folic acid and vitamin B12 to break down fats,
protein, and carbohydrates. Biotin is found in most foods and also manufactured
by bacteria in the intestinal tract. Most biotin deficiencies are associated
with the consumption of raw egg whites which contain avidin. Avidin binds with
biotin to prevent its absorption into the blood. Cooking the egg whites
deactivates avidin. Biotin is non-toxic and probably not required in supplement
form. Although biotin deficiencies are rare, they can occur when people have
malabsorption problems. Some research indicates that male pattern baldness may
respond to supplemented biotin, albeit in a very marginal fashion. Biotin is
found in cooked egg yolks, salt-water fish, beef and poultry, milk, cheese, soy
products and whole grain breads. If athletes are eating raw egg whites, extra
biotin must be consumed. Reagent for enzymatic incorporation of biotin into
nucleic acids. Biotin-21-dUTP is a dTTP analog with biotin covalently attached
to the pyrimidine ring through a 21-atom spacer arm. It can be incorporated by
nick translation, mixed primer labeling, 3'-end-labeling, or PCR. Biotin-21-dUTP
has a 21-atom spacer arm, the longest spacer available, which reduces steric
hindrance in subsequent detection using streptavidin-conjugated enzymes. 100 l
is sufficient for 50 nick translation reactions. Biotin-21-dUTP is provided with
a complete User Manual (PT1464-1). Product Size Cat. # Biotin-21-dUTP (0.5 mM)

100 l 5021-1 Biotin-21-dUTP (10 mM) 100 l 5021-3 Form 100 l of 0.5 mM
solution in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) or 100 l of 10 mM solution in 50 mM

Tris-HCl (pH 7.5) Storage Conditions: -20C Biotin plays a key role in turning
fat, carbohydrates and amino acids into fuel for the body. It also helps
strengthen hair and nails. Food Sources 3/4 cup of soybeans or 1/2 cup of
oatmeal = 30 mcg (Adequate Intake for adult male) Brewer's yeast, liver,
oatmeal, soybeans, eggs, salmon, milk, mushrooms, halibut, bananas, peanut
butter, cantaloupes, cottage cheese.* *Foods have been placed in descending
order from best to good source. Deficiency Signs, Symptoms and Those at Risk

Signs of deficiency in infants are skin rash and/or scaly inflammation of the
skin. Signs of deficiency in adults are dry, scaly skin; nausea; fatigue;
depression; and hair loss. Infants under six months born with very low levels of
biotinidase (the enzyme that activates biotin) are at risk for deficiency.

Adults on long-term anti-convulsant drugs, which can inhibit biotin uptake in
the intestines, are at risk for deficiency. Dosage Information Age Adequate

Intake Under 6 months 5 mcg 6-12 months 6 mcg 1-3 years 8 mcg 4-8 years 12 mcg

9-13 years 20 mcg 14-18 years 25 mcg Males 19+ 30 mcg Females 19+ 30 mcg

Pregnant 30 mcg Lactating (1st 12 mths) 35 mcg Toxicity/Possible Side Effects To
date, no cases of biotin toxicity have been reported. [INDEX] 1-85 Deficiencies
of Vitamins B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin) and the cofactor (helper
substance) Biotin reduce immune resistance markedly. If B5 (Pantothenic Acid) or

B6 (Pyridoxine) are deficient, resistance drops almost to zero. A good B Complex
is necessary to compliment Vitamin C when fighting infections. 1-144 Biotin is
essential to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats. It has no known toxicity.

Any supplemental form is as good as another. The best natural sources of Biotin
are soybeans and brown rice. Raw egg white contains a substance called avidin,
which prevents Biotin from being absorbed into the body. Biotin can help with
hair loss only when used as part of a complete vitamin and mineral supplement.

BIOTIN A coenzyme. In 1916 it was discovered there was a detrimental effect in
eating raw eggs.* ? susceptible to strong acid and alkaline, UV ?
stable in heat, visible light and air ? the D-isomer id its active form

Absorption ? absorbed in the small intestine mainly by active transport
(some passive absorption and possibly some bacteria synthesis) ? storage
of biotin occurs in the liver, kidney and adrenals * inhibited by avidin which
is found in raw egg whites Increased requirements ? alcohol, coffee, raw
egg whites ? pregnancy, lactation ? aging ? athletes
? dermatitis Excretion In the urine mainly. Synergistic nutrients
? increases the synthesis of B12 ? convert tryptophan to B3
? with B2, B3, B6, A in skin function ? with B5 in hair
pigmentation ? Mg and Phosphorus are needed to convert biotin into its
active form ? needed to activate B5, B9, B12 ? Zn metabolism

Functions 1. carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions in protein metabolism

2. carbohydrate metabolism 3. synthesise and secrete insulin 4. glycogen
synthesis 5. fat metabolism 6. antibody and haemoglobin production 7. pancreatic
amylase production 8. maintain health of hair, skin, sebaceous glands, bone
marrow, sex glands 9. can help cholesterol plaques in blood vessels Deficiency

Symptoms GIT - nausea, vomiting, anorexia Skin ? grey skin (although they
are not dying), alopecia (hair loss), scaly dermatitis, skin dryness ?
increased lactic acid levels ? increased blood cholesterol ?
hypoglycaemia ? greying hair Reproductive abnormalities due to mothers
deficiency - cleft palate, micromelia (abnormally small limbs) Therapeutic uses
? for the deficiencies above ? candida (biotin decreases levels of

Candida) ? atherosclerosis ? acne ? leg cramps ?
diabetes ? burns and scalds Toxicity None known. Dose ? RDA 200
mcg ? Therapeutic 150-600 mcg Sources Most animal and plant tissues, eg.
egg yolk, liver, nuts, soya beans, brown rice, Royal jelly, bee pollen,

Brewers yeast.