Measurements of velocity and mass of two
objects colliding, support the

conservation of linear momentum. The dynamics
of different masses distinguish

velocity values experimentally. Video
recordings of two colliding masses can be

manipulated to extract frames
displaying distance verses time. Computer software

enables us to derive the
velocity. Different masses were tested to determine an

increase, decrease, or
equal effect. From this data, we ultimately derive the

momentum of each cart
and test the Law of Linear momentum. The following trials

were measured: 1.
An elastic collision with a cart moving at constant speed with

a cart of
equal mass originally at rest; 2. An elastic collision with a car

moving at
constant speed and a cart of one-third the mass originally at rest. 3.

An
elastic collision with a cart of three times the mass originally at rest;
4.

An inelastic collision with a cart moving at constant speed and a cart
of two

times the mass originally at rest. Procedure Materials: *quick cam
*software

*two carts of equal mass *two 500g weight blocks *track Steps: 1.
Set-up camera

according to the correct settings noted in 3.4 (pp. 19) 2.
Establish four points

of reference visible in the camera frame. Place the
initial motionless cart at

the second reference point from the end opposite
of the oncoming cart. Record an

elastic collision with a cart moving at
constant speed with a cart of equal mass

originally at rest. 3. Save the
video (refer to 3.4 pp.19 for instructions). 4.

Open video point to begin
analysis of the motion (3.4.1 pp. 19-20). 5. Construct

a distance vs. time
graph, and a velocity vs. time graph for (A) the cart in

motion before the
collision (B) the cart(s) in motion after the collision. Three

sets of the
distance and velocity graphs may be required. 6. On the velocity vs.

time
graph, find the average velocity; click the "F" button on the top

right-hand
side of the graph and select "average". Print both graphs -

distance,
velocity. 7. Repeat this procedure from the step number two for the

entire
four scenarios. 8. The mass of each cart is 500 grams. The mass of each

block
is 500 grams. Results In the first scenario, with both masses equal,

momentum
is virtually conserved with a P of 0.0035kgm/s. The second scenario

contains
a cart three times the mass as the other. Our information concludes

that P
equals 0.0735 as the initial cart continues in the same direction
after

collision. So far our measurement supports the law of momentum
conservation. The

third scenario involves the opposite mass components of the
second scenario; the

initial mass in motion is one-third the mass of the
motionless cart. The P is

-0.1655kgm/s as the original moving mass changes
direction after collision. The

collision in the fourth scenario is inelastic.
The components stick together and

have the same ending velocity although
starting masses were different; the cart

at rest is one-half the mass of the
cart moving towards it. The resulting P

equals -.3013kgm/s. This indicates a
large difference in the initial momentum

verses the final momentum. In the
video, the two carts came to rest 20cm from

collision. The experimental
results vary in accuracy according to the

theoretical results. In an elastic
collision, one expects the momentum to be

conserved. However, we found our P
off by a range of 0.0035kgm/s to

-0.1655kgm/s. We found this error partially
due to the points that were graphed.

Some exceeded the range of motion
that was needed to calculate. The other margin

of error may be due to the
small distance between the reference points. In the

inelastic collision,
energy is lost, perhaps to thermal energy. This might

explain the large
P.